Portable video

INTERMEDIA/Infocom

recherche.intermedia@univ-paris8.fr

 

 

1. Petit glossaire franco-américain

2. Portable video

 

2, rue de la Liberté
93526 Saint-Denis

 

 

 

camescope

opérateur (cameraman)

valeur de plan

plan général

plan moyen

(très) gros plan

contrechamp

objectif

luminosité

teinte

surexposé

saturation

incrustation

cadre

profondeur de champ

pas de profondeur

rattrapage de point

pano horizontal

pano vertical

travelling lateral

travelling avant (arrière)

gear head

log

head (nose) room

eyeline

EFP (Electronic Field Production)

ENG (Electronic News Gathering)

montage caméra

montage d'après la musique

insertion

fondu

fondu enchaîné

coupe franche

chevauxchement

faux raccord

 

1. PETIT GLOSSAIRE FRANCO-AMERICAIN


camcorder

shooter

focus length

long shot, wide shot, (cover shot)

medium shot

(extreme) close up

reverse shot (reaction shot)

lens

brightness

hue

washed

blooming

key

frame

depth of field

rack focus

follow focus

panning

tilting

crabbing (trucking)

dolly in (out) [dolly shot]

tête fluide

script

air dessus (devant)

ligne du regard

Production en studio

Reportage

cutting in the camera

cutting on the beat

cut in shot

dissolve

cross fade

cross cut

drop out

jump cut


2. PORTABLE VIDEO

TYPES
Personal video : video amateur
Independent video production, educational and industrial : video institutionnelle
Broadcast uses : production professionnelle
ENG (Electronic News Gathering : reportage)
EFP (Electronic Field Production : régie mobile)


PRODUCTION ORGANIZATION
Producer : producteur
camera operator (shooter) : opérateur de prises de vues
videotape editor : monteur

THE CAMERA

the image : lines fields, frames (interlaced scanning) 525 lines (NTSC)

the four part television signal

1. luminance
2. chrominance
3. timing and blanking pulses
4. the monaural or stereo audio signal importance of timing of scanning :

filter wheel
white balance (automatic or manual) color bars

camera mounting equipment shoulder mount
tripod, friction or fluid head spreader and dolly steadicam

LENSES

focal length - wide angel telephoto, zoom, zoom ring, electronic zoom

focus ring - how to focus, auto focus systems, depth of field (affected by amount of light, focal length)

aperture ring - iris control, auto light meters
other - lens hood (prevents lens flare), lens cap, macro lever

THE RECORDING SYSTEM

tape transport controls
eject, play. stop, fast forward, rewind, pause, record, audio dub, forward and reverse search (scan)
audio and video inputs and outputs
camera input, video in and out, audio in and out, power in direct (DC) or alternating (AC) meters, warning lights, tape counters
battery meter, VU meter, dew lamp tape counters (numerical and real time frame counters)
other controls
input selector (camera or line), tracking, speed control (SP or EP), audio monitor control ( ch l, 2 or both), color lock, remote controls

VIDEOTAPE
types - 2 inch, 1 inch, 3/4 inch (reg and mini), Beta, Betacam, VHS, M-format, VHS C, S-VHS, 8 mm, HI 8

care of videotape:
never touch with bare hands
avoid temperature and humidity extremes avoid dust and smoke
store on end, rather than flat drop outs

Small Format
audio mini jack, audio phone( 1/4"), audio and video RCA. video BNC, video VHF, RF, twin lead adapters

field monitors
carrying equipment carrying case, shoulder strap

VIDEOTAPE RECORDING

component recording - as in Betacam and RECAM, the luminance and chrominance components of the signal are recorded on different tracks

VISUALIZATION AND COMPOSITION

screen size and aspect ratio
focus draws attention to certain areas
focus and depth
framing
headroom
noseroom (leading looks)
foreground and background to express depth, Z axis
framing and balance - symmetrical balance and asymmetrical balance (Small format)

camera movement
pan, tilt, zoom, doll, truck and held vs. tripod

180 degree rule

shooting for depth
try for distinct foreground, middleground and background place subjects and different distances from camera
bring action toward or away from camera (Z axis)

1. Clearly understand what you want to say (think of each shot as a statement) .
2. Establish a single center of interest

shooting to edit:

shoot establishing shots

cover the action - try to identify the principal events

repeat the action if possible (shoot from different angles)

shoot essential details - cut ins and cut aways

shoot material for transitions

shoot segments long enough for editing

shoot shots that utilize matched camera movements

interviews : shoot focused on subject, vary zoom at appropriate points ; after interview is over
shoot several over the shoulder shots as reaction shots, re-ask questions

LIGHTING

color temperature - degrees Kelvin
white balance
gels and dichroic filters
equipment:
quartz bulbs
spotlights and flood lights, fixed and variable beam spotlights, soft lights, battery powered lights
light quality - hard and soft light
barn doors, scrims, diffusers, reflectors, flags
floor stands, camera mounts, hand held
power requirements

Safety :
1. Don't overload electrical circuits
2. Keep fingers off quartz lamps
3. Make sure lights are securely mounted
4. Keep light a safe distance away from any flammable surface
5. Carry insulated electrician's gloves.

LIGHTING AESTHETICS

modeling - process of creating the illusion of three dimensional space
three point lighting - key, fill, back
motivated and unmotivated light
Ughting for texture
background shadows

GRAPHICS

unity. clarity. style
essential area. safe title area
keying titles

SOUND

amplitude - loudness (db) frequency - pitch (Hz)

microphone characteristics:
pickup pattern - omnidirectional, unidirectional, bidirectional, shotgun
types - dynamic, condenser, electret condenser

frequency response
Impedance - all professional mics are low impedance
camera mounted microphones - built in and attachable advantage: convenience, useful for one person shooting disadvantage: distance of mic from principal sound source

external mics
hand held, lavaliere (tie tack), shot gun, contact mics
mounting devices
desk stands, floor stands, fishpoles, booms
wired and wireless mics
balanced and unbalanced lines
in balanced lines 2 wires carry the signal and a third acts as a shield against outside interference, unbalanced lines contain 2 wires
recording sound:
input levels - mic and line (mic levels weak- line levels amplified) automatic and manual gain control, VU meters
limiters
headphones
countdown stand ups and voice overs
use identification slates, audio and video
test recording and field checks

hints for recording good sound:

microphone selection microphone placement
signal recording
location acoustics (low cut filters) wind noise (wind screen) ambient noise

SOUND AESTHETICS

types of sound
voice - dialogue, narration, voice over (off camera narration), sound on tape (on camera narration)
natural sound
music
sound effects

sound perspective - perspective of sound should match perspective of visuals
sound presence - quality of sound that usually differs with distance
constructing the audio portion of the program narrator vs. no narrator
on-camera and off-camera questions question re-asks
natural sound
music and sound effects, sound bites
visual impact of microphones

EDITING: AESTHETIC FACTORS

the creative and the technical editor

TYPES OF EDITING

continuity editing - smoothly move action along without any discontinuous jumps in time or place
establishing shots cut in and cut out
jump cuts and matched cuts
clean entrances and exits
use eyeline to establish direction of view
maintain continuity in the direction of action - characters moving in one shot should continue to move in the same general direction in the next shot
use shot content to motivate cuts

dynamic editing - tends to be more complex than continuity editing and frequently uses visual material to create an impact, rather than simply to convey literal meaning

manipulating the time line - parallel cutting, flashback or forward
editing rhythm - editing to music, timed cut
transitions - cut, fade, dissolve, wipe, DVE, compressional

sound in editing

crossfade
both edit - an edit that effects bath audio and video
split edit- edit is made first on sound (or pic) than on pic (or sound) sound layering, mix
editing guidelines:
1. Avoid cutting from a stationary camera shot to a moving shot or vice versa
2. Whenever possible, cut on subject movement.
3. Never make an edit without appropriate motivation.
4. Cut away from a scene the moment the visual statement is complete
5. The real story is in the B-roll. In other words the supplementary footage like reaction shots. inserts and cutaway shots becomes crucial.

MECHANICS OF EDITING

physical editing
electronic editing
assemble editing - stationary erase head
insert editing - flying erase head
need for control track - color bars or video black (crystal black) video black vs. no signal

components: playback VCR record VCR monitors controller

CONTROL TRACK EDITING search wheel

setting edit points. trim
backspacing - tapes must have at least 5 seconds of continuous video information and control track before the edit point

accuracy - control track editors are not frame accurate. The more times you preview an edit the greater the chance of an error.
videotapes - you need at least 2: the original or source material plus the edit master tape

editing leader
color bars with tone at 0 db slate (program ID) countdown leader program start

30 sec 10 sec 10 sec

editing strategy
setting edit points
setting exit points (overlapping edits) avoid overuse of pause mode

performing an inset edit

1. Select type of insert edit you want (video, audio l, audio 2)

2. enter the edit IN points on both tapes

3. Locate the critical out point of the edit? Is it on the source or record tape? Enter accordingly or no end point at an.

4. Preview edit if desired

5. Perform edit

6. Stop both VCRs and review edit


manipulating audio
patch panels and mixing boards monitoring audio while editing

ADDITION AL PRODUCTION COMPONENTS

production switcher
external sync
time base corrector (TBC)
program buses
switcher transitions: fades. wipes
keys - internal external. chroma. downstream

character generators
film transfer
A/B Roll Editing


PRODUCTION PLANNING

PREPRODUCTION PLANNING program conceptualization and design
subject - content and organization of material
treatment - way in which the program will be presented

preinterview
remote survey - technical and aesthetic assessment of remote location
technical factors: lighting, power, sound
legal and safety factors
aesthetic factors
access to location

conducting the remote survey
survey under conditions similar to the shoot
bring viewer, tape measure, checklist, Polaroid or camcorder making parking arrangements
consider crowd control
arrange for food for cast and crew

formal program proposal and shooting schedule treatment
outline of major elements
list of locations and setups
outline of proposed shooting schedule comments on technical feasibility
script
means of evaluation
budget

releases and related legal issues
talent release
location releases
location safety
use of copyrighted music, film, or tape stock footage, sound effects, and music

scripts
story outline script storyboard
full script

PRODUCTION PLANNING
equipment needs crew assignments
shooting ratio
labeling tapes in the field
label tapes as they are shot
slate tapes

POSTPRODUCTION PLANNING
logging tapes
rough cut or editing script
final edit

ONE EDITING STRATEGY: LAYERING YOUR EDIT

1. Edit together the framework of your program .Use audio as backbone. Do not worry about visual inconsistencies at this point.

2. Go back over program with a series of insert edits and cutaways. covering and patching any rough spots.

3. Last layer can spice up the sound track with music and effects.

EXAMPLE

Step 1 Preproduction Planning
Step 2 Shooting the interview.
Set up interview with expert in some subject or someone colorful, etc.
a. interview can be in studio or on location
b. decide if you want interviewer to appear in program
1) if so shoot cutaways of listening interviewer and re-asks
2)if not ask talent to speak in completed sentences
c. pre-interview can be helpful

Step 3 Shooting in the field. You need shooting strategy
a. by reviewing previous interview you can bring notes about what kind of things to shoot
b. add more things to list. Is there a particular theme you wish to
bring out ? Get shots for supporting this "hook".
c. look for begining, middle and end shots
d. look for humorous shots
e. look for transition shots
f. get establishing shots - safety net
g. always pre-roll
h. index card system

Step 4 Putting it all together
a. prepare control track, put color bars, slate, title
b. lay in music and introductory narration
1) both can be done at same time
2) you have to decide whether to match picture to
narration or narration to picture

Step 5 The first layer
a. take the best parts of interviews and organize segments to tell story with a beginning, middle and end
1) you can string together with little regard for visuals
2) edit between sentences or pauses so sound track flows smoothly

Step 6 The next layer

a. go back and cover rotten shots, jump cuts using video only insert edits
1) coordinate appropriate shots with appropriate speech
2) sometimes inserts can be exactly what is being discussed, other times more general or even opposite

b. after finishing inserts you must complete program with final narration, visual collage, music/video collage, etc. and credit roll

Step 7 More layers
a. in some shows you might add a third layer, spicing up sound. You could mix in background sounds or music
Everything so far would be only 2nd generation. If you had to shorten or lengthen the program you could still move one more generation and still be only 3rd generation.


KEY - PLANNING !